European union


The Italian parliament (Camera del Deputati – lower house)
Chaiperson: Pier Ferdinando Cassini
Members: 630

Parliamentary groupL'Ulivo
Information for the partyOlive Tree (Italian: l'Ulivo) is a political denomination strongly related to Third Way policies in Italy and commonly adopted by center-to-left alliances of parties from 1996 to now. The name was introduced by Romano Prodi, professor of economics and former left-wing Christian Democrat. It is now subsumed into the new coalition L'Unione.
The Olive Tree participated in the general election of April 9 and 10, 2006, as confederation of three parties:
Democrats of the Left

Daisy-Democracy is Freedom

European Republican Movement

Democrats of the Left (Italian: Democratici di Sinistra) is the main Italian left-wing political party, part of the Ulivo electorial coalition.
It was founded in 1991, with the name PDS (Partito Democratico della Sinistra), consequently to the post-communist transformation of the old Partito Comunista Italiano, as moderate-left political party.
Inside the party are several organized political tendency associations. On the right wing the Liberal association have a strongly moderate Third Way or Radical middle political agenda.
The left-wing opposition is lead by the DS Left - returning to win (Italian: Sinistra DS - per tornare a vincere), a left-of-Third Way democratic socialist tendency.
In the European Parliament it has 12 MEPs, who sit as part of the Party of European Socialists group.


Daisy-Democracy is Freedom (full name in Italian: Democrazia è Libertà – La Margherita: 'Democracy is Freedom – The Daisy') is a political party in Italy. It is a centrist party consisting of the former Partito Popolare Italiano, Democratici and Rinnovamento Italiano. It ran for election in 2001 as an alliance and part of the Olive Tree Coalition. Later the constituent parties merged into one party. It combines liberal parties forces (like the old Democratici and Rinnovamento Italiano) with centrist christian democrats.
The party president is Francesco Rutelli, formerly Rome's Mayor. They are a liberal party and pro-European. Though part of the Olive Tree, which is usually associated with the Party of European Socialists, the Democratici were a member of the European Liberal, Democrat and Reform Party, and the Partito Popolare Italiano was a member of the European People's Party. In the European Parliament the Margherita joined the group of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe.

The European Republican Movement (Italian: Movimento Repubblicani Europei) of Italy is a small center left liberal party, part of the Olive Tree coalition and the ALDE group in the European Parliament. The party emerged from a left-wing tendency of the Partito Repubblicano Italiano (PRI), when this old party joined the Silvio Berlusconi III administration—the congress of PRI that decided this new alliance has been cancelled by Italian Court. Its leader is Luciana Sbarbati.
It elected one MEP in 2004 as part of the All United in the Olive Tree - for Europe ticket.
The formation of the European Republican Movement was hailed by satirist Vauro as a "triumph of microsurgery", because of the negligible size of the PRI.

Parliamentary groupForza Italia
Information for the partyForza Italia is an Italian political right wing party. It is headed by Silvio Berlusconi, who also is Prime Minister of Italy.
It was formed in 1993 by Berlusconi, a successful businessman. As the head of a political coalition, the Casa delle Libertà, Forza Italia won national power in the 1994 elections, but lost power when the northern separatist Lega Nord left the coalition. It regained power in the 2001 elections, with the League's support.
A rough translation of its name is "Come on Italy!"
In the 9-10 April 2006 general elections, the party was member of the defeated House of Freedoms and won 71 out of 315 senators and 134 out of 630 deputies.

Parliamentary groupNational Alliance
Information for the partyThe National Alliance (Alleanza Nazionale) is a right-wing Italian party, formed from most of the former Italian Social Movement (Movimento Sociale Italiano, MSI) and conservative elements of the former Christian Democrats, the National Alliance (Alleanza Nazionale, AN) was created in 1994.
Since the 1990s, Alleanza Nazionale has distanced itself from Benito Mussolini and fascism and made efforts to improve relations with Jewish groups. With most hardliners leaving the party, it now seeks to present itself as a respectable rightwing party.
The party is led by Gianfranco Fini, formerly Youth Front leader of the MSI (widely dubbed Italy's neo-fascist party) and successor as MSI leader to Giorgio Almirante. It has taken part in the first two House of Freedoms coalition governments (1994 and 2001-) of prime minister Silvio Berlusconi, in the second of which Fini is deputy prime minister and, from November 2004, foreign minister.
Other well-known party members have included Alessandra Mussolini, granddaughter of the former Fascist dictator Benito Mussolini, who along with some other hardliners left the party in November 2003 when Gianfranco Fini described fascism as "an absolute evil" during his state visit to Israel in the function of Italian deputy prime minister.
On 2006 general elections the party won 72 seats in the lower chamber and 41 in the upper house.

Parliamentary groupCommunist Refoundation Party
Information for the partyThe Communist Refoundation Party (Italian: Partito della Rifondazione Comunista) is an Italian reformed communist party.
It was formed in 1991 when the Italian Communist Party split in two: the Partito Democratico della Sinistra, led by Achille Occhetto, and the Partito della Rifondazione Comunista, originally headed by Armando Cossutta.
It is currently headed by Fausto Bertinotti, and it views itself as the party representing the anti-globalization movement in the Italian political scene.
It has members in the European Parliament who sit in the European United Left - Nordic Green Left group.
After the April 9 and 10 election which led the centre-left coalition The Union to a very narrow win, party leader Fausto Bertinotti was elected Speaker of the Chamber of Deputies, and thus resigned the secretarship. On May 7, 2006, MP Franco Giordano has been elected new leader, with 68.81% of votes.

Parliamentary groupUnion of Christian and Centre Democrats
Information for the partyThe Union of Christian and Centre Democrats (Italian: Unione dei Democratici Cristiani e Democratici di Centro) is a political party in Italy formed by a merger of the former Centro Cristiano Democratico and Christiani Democratici Uniti parties. The two parties had formerly co-operated as the Biancafiore or Whiteflower Alliance as part of the House of Freedoms coalition. The new party is led by Marco Follini.
In the 2004 European Parliamentary Elections it gained 5.9% of the vote and returned 5 MEPs.
In 2006 the party achieved relatively good results in the general elections.

Parliamentary groupNorthern League
Information for the partyThe Northern League (Italian: Lega Nord) is an Italian political party that advocates autonomy for a part of Northern Italy called "Padania". It is a personality-driven party led by Umberto Bossi.
It presents a merger of the various regional movements including the Lombard League and the League of Venice. The movement was founded in 1989, and was part of Silvio Berlusconi's government in 1994. In 1996 the movement announced that its aim was the independence of Northern Italy under the name Padania, a name referring to the Po River valley, but which the Northern League gave a geographically broader usage that has been steadily gaining currency. In 2001 they became part of the coalition government again, and hold 30 of 630 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and 17 of the 325 Senate seats.
In the European Parliament its MEPs work within the grouping Independence and Democracy.
In the general elections 2006 the party won 23 seats in the Lower house and 13 in the Upper house of the Italian parliament.

Parliamentary groupItaly of Values
Information for the partyItaly of Values (Italian: Italia dei Valori, also known as Lista Di Pietro) is a populist and anti-corruption political movement in Italy, headed by former magistrate and Mani Pulite campaigner Antonio Di Pietro. The party is a member of the European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party. In the 2004 European Parliamentary Elections he teamed up with one-time communist leader Achille Occhetto to run as Società Civile—Di Pietro Occhetto. The list gained 2.1% of the popular vote, and both men were elected Members of the European Parliament; Occhetto immediately renounced to his seat in favour of hard-left journalist Giulietto Chiesa. A delegation of IDV partecipated to the 2005 ELDR Congress in Bratislava and presented nearly 3/4 of all the amendments submitted by all the delegations present to the congress.

Parliamentary groupRose in the Fist
Information for the partyThe Rose in the Fist (Italian Rosa nel Pugno) is an Italian political federation of parties founded in 2005. Its members are the Italian Democratic Socialists and the Italian Radicals, whereas the left wing of the Socialist Party New PSI has shown some interest in joining this federation. It is part of the centre-left coalition of parties L'Unione.
The federation has been constituted in September 2005, during a convention held in Fiuggi, based on the political principles of José Luis Zapatero (not about foreign policy, where Radicals have a pro-U.S. stance), Tony Blair and Loris Fortuna. In November 2005, its official definition has been finally announced, and the symbol presented: it clearly recalls the current one of Socialist International, and the historical logo of the Italian Radicals during the 1970s and the 1980s, but also the current one of the Italian Democratic Socialists (that is, in fact, a rose).
The Radical component of the alliance creates some friction with the more Roman Catholic components of L'Unione, such as the Daisy and Popular-UDEUR. The Socialist component is made up mostly of veterans of the Italian Socialist Party, who have some problems with former anti-corruption prosecutor Antonio Di Pietro (who caused the demise of their former party with his investigations during Mani Pulite) and his movement Italy of Values.
Some leading figures in the coalition are Enrico Boselli (socialist) and Emma Bonino (radical).
The federation presented its own candidates for the next general election of 2006, obtaining 2.5% of votes (one million), and winning 17 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and no seats in the Senate.
It is one of the main Italian supporters of gay rights, abortion and euthanasia.

Parliamentary groupMISTO
Information for the partyThe parliamentary group “MISTO” is an alliance of several small parties.
Misto-Minoranze Linguistiche, Misto- MPA (Mov. Per l'Autonomia), Altri.

Parliamentary groupGreen
Information for the partyThe Federation of the Greens (Federazione dei Verdi) is the Italian Green Party. Its leader is Alfonso Pecoraro Scanio.
The first official Italian Green political movements became electorally active at the 1985 local elections. Their symbol and political style was directly inspired by the Northern European environmentalist movements. The Liste Verdi then made their debut at the 1987 General Elections when they gained 2.6% of the votes. At the 1989 European Elections two were the competing Green parties: Verdi-Sole che Ride and the Verdi Arcobaleno, close to the Radical Party and featuring some Radical politicians (Alex Langer, Adelaide Aglietta and Francesco Rutelli, etc). In 1990-91 the two movements joined forces to form the Federazione dei Verdi.
In the 2004 European Parliamentary Election the Verdi stood as a separate list, gaining 2.5% of the national vote and electing 2 MEPs.
In the run-up to the 2006 General Elections, the Verdi are integral part of the centre-left l'Unione coalition under the leadership of Romano Prodi.
The party representatives in the Senate are part of a coalition with the Italian communists.

Parliamentary groupPopular Alliance-UDEUR
Information for the partyThe Popular Alliance-UDEUR (Italian: Alleanza Popolare-UDEUR) is a small centrist political party in Italy, led by Clemente Mastella. It is affiliated to the European People's Party.
The UDEUR part of the name commemorates its earlier title Unione Democratici per l'Europa (Union of Democrats for Europe).
In the 2004 European Parliamentary Election it achieved 1.3% of the national vote, sufficient to elect its leader as an MEP.

Parliamentary groupChristian Democracy for the Autonomies and Socialist Party New PSI
Information for the partyCoalition of two parties:
Christian Democracy for the Autonomies (Italian: Democrazia Cristiana per le Autonomie), often referred to as New DC (Nuova DC), is a minor centrist political party founded October 25, 2004 by former Democrats' Centre Union MP Gianfranco Rotondi. The name refers to the old Christian Democracy party, disbanded in the early 1990s after the Mani Pulite affair.
From its formation in 2004 it has been part of the House of Freedoms coalition. In the regional elections of Arpil 2005 it presented its own candidates in many regions. However, the list showed unpromising results. The party took part in the April 2006 election on a joint list with the right wing of the Socialist Party New PSI. The two former First republic ruling parties created this list in order to revive the political culture of the past.

The Partito Socialista – Nuovo PSI (NPSI) is a small Italian party which professes a social-democratic ideology and claims to be the successor to the old Italian Socialist Party, which was disbanded after the judiciary tempest of the early 1990s (see Mani Pulite).
The party's members are often former followers of Bettino Craxi, whom they often portray as a victim of political persecution, notwithstanding the many convictions he received on corruption charges. The party leader is Gianni De Michelis, former minister of foreign affairs in a number of Italian governments, and formerly a close ally of Craxi. After a disputed congress Bobo Craxi also claimed to be the leader of the party. However, on 25 Jan 2006 the Tribunal of Rome decided that Gianni De Michelis is the official leader of NPSI, a ruling that promped the quick departure of Bobo Craxi with a few supporters.

The Italian senate (Senatto della Republica)
faction: 630
Chaiperson: Marcello Pera

factionForza Italia
factionNational Alliance
factionCommunist Refoundation Party
factionUnion of Christian and Centre Democrats
factionNorthern League
factionItaly of Values
factionRose in the Fist
factionPopular Alliance-UDEUR
factionChristian Democracy for the Autonomies and Socialist Party New PSI